The neural network behind the Google Translate service is under suspect to create a common representation of meaning, independend from language. Even for the Google engineers it seems to be hard to understand what is exactaly going on, but it is working with a measurable higher quality than ever before. The network was able to translate from Spanish to Portuguese by itself, without guidance, after it was trained to translate from Portuguese to English and English to Spanish.
Deep neural networks and machine-learning are key players of artificial intelligence. They are simulating basic information processing of the brain and are more and more used in many products.
More information: research.googleblog.com